Muharram in Amroha

Muharram

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Muharram is the frist month of Islamic calender and a month of remembrance. Ashura, which literally means the “Tenth” in Arabic, refers to the tenth day of Muharram. It is well-known because of historical significance and mourning for the Shahadat of Imam Ḥussain ibn Ali, the grandson of Muhammad.

Muslims begin mourning from the first night of Muharram and continue for ten nights, climaxing on the 10th of Muharram, known as the Day of Ashura. The last few days up until and including the Day of Ashura are the most important because these were the days in which Hussain and his family and followers (including women, children and elderly people) were deprived of water from the 7th onward and on the 10th, Hussain and 72 of his followers were killed by the army of Yazid at the Battle of Karbala on Yazid’s orders. The surviving members of Imam Hussain’s family and those of his followers were taken captive, marched to Damascus, and imprisoned there.

Muharram

Muharram is the frist month of Islamic calender and a month of remembrance. Ashura, which literally means the “Tenth” in Arabic, refers to the tenth day of Muharram. It is well-known because of historical significance and mourning for the Shahadat of Imam Ḥussain ibn Ali, the grandson of Muhammad.

Muslims begin mourning from the first night of Muharram and continue for ten nights, climaxing on the 10th of Muharram, known as the Day of Ashura. The last few days up until and including the Day of Ashura are the most important because these were the days in which Hussain and his family and followers (including women, children and elderly people) were deprived of water from the 7th onward and on the 10th, Hussain and 72 of his followers were killed by the army of Yazid at the Battle of Karbala on Yazid’s orders. The surviving members of Imam Hussain’s family and those of his followers were taken captive, marched to Damascus, and imprisoned there.

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Azadari

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The Azadari (also known as the Remembrance of Muharram or Mourning of Muharram ) is a set of commemoration rituals observed by Muslims, as well as some non-Muslims. The commemoration falls in Muharram, Many of the events associated with the ritual take place in congregation halls known as Azakhana or Imambara.

The words Azadari (Persian: عزاداری) or Sogvari (سوگواری) which mean mourning and lamentation; and Majalis-e Aza, also known as Aza-e Hussain, includes mourning congregations, lamentations, matam and all such actions which express the emotions of grief. Expression of grief with thumping of the chest by Shia Muslims is known as Matam or Matam-Dari/Seena Zannee (chest beating).

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Azadari

The Azadari (also known as the Remembrance of Muharram or Mourning of Muharram ) is a set of commemoration rituals observed by Muslims, as well as some non-Muslims. The commemoration falls in Muharram, Many of the events associated with the ritual take place in congregation halls known as Azakhana or Imambara.

The words Azadari (Persian: عزاداری) or Sogvari (سوگواری) which mean mourning and lamentation; and Majalis-e Aza, also known as Aza-e Hussain, includes mourning congregations, lamentations, matam and all such actions which express the emotions of grief. Expression of grief with thumping of the chest by Shia Muslims is known as Matam or Matam-Dari/Seena Zannee (chest beating).

Muharram and Azadari in Amroha

The Mourning of Muharram or Azadari in Amroha is hundreds of years old. It was done in different forms among different people. There are two characteristic ways of Azadari in Amroha. First is Majlis, in which all the mourners gather inside Azakhana or Imambaras and recite Marsiya( elegy poems), listen and remember the battle of Karbala and cry on the martyrdom of Imam Hussain and his followers and beat their chests and recite Nauha(  lament about the tragedy of Imam Hussain ibn Ali in the Battle of Karbala). The other way is Muharram processions or Juloos. This procession has three parts, first includes a que camels portraying the captives of Karbala, following it is a que of called Aaraish which are the portrayals of holy assets recovered after the battle of Karbala and at last there is Hussaini baja( drums and Chymbals), following it are people with Alams ( flags of islam and arms of martyrs) and then some people carrying Taboot(the replica of coffin of Imam Hussain). Syed Shah Miskeen first laid the foundation of the Muharram processions or Juloos in Amroha when it was very small, but today this procession covers a route of around 18kms and goes through every corner of the city.

Gallery

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History of Azadari in Amroha

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”]

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History of Azadari in Amroha

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Azadari Videos

Live Webcast and Videos

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Live Webcast and Videos

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Majlis

Muharram congregations

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In the month of Muharram people often gather in Imambaras for Majlis-Muharram congregation. Majlis consists of three major parts. Firstly a group of marsiyakhwan( elegy poem reciters) recite Soz, Salam and Marsiya( poetry written on tragedy of Karbala). Then a person, generally maulana, addresses the tragedy and events of Karbala and remember the martyrdom and sacrifice of Imam Hussain and his followers, this a known as Zakiri( description of the tragedy of Karbala), and as this is the main part, it is solely referred to as Majlis. A Zakir( the speaker) sits on a Mimbar which is a pulpit in the mosque where the Imam (prayer leader) stands to deliver sermons (خطبة, khutbah) or in the Imambara where the speaker sits and lectures the congregation. Then all people gather and do Matam( beat their chest in the remembrance of Imam Hussain) while one or few people recite Nauha( lament about the tragedy of Karbala).

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Marsiya

Marsiyas are recited at three events, in Majlis, on the ariival of juloos in Imambara, and along with Juloos only on the day of Chehlum, when a specific Marsiya written by Chunnu Lal Dilgeer , “Qaid se chhoot ke jab” is recited.

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Majlis

Zakiri is refered to as Majlis as it is the main part of the congregation. It begins with the knowledge, teachings and praises of Prophets and Imams, known as Fazail, and finally addressing to the tragedy and events of Karbala knwon as Masaib.

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Nauha

Nauha is the most common way of Azadari in Amroha. Some specific Nauhas are recited on some specific dates and places. Although you can hear voices of nauhas coming out of every home in the month of Muharram.

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Marsiya

Marsiyas are recited at three events, in Majlis, on the ariival of juloos in Imambara, and along with Juloos only on the day of Chehlum, when a specific Marsiya written by Chunnu Lal Dilgeer , “Qaid se chhoot ke jab” is recited.

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Majlis

Zakiri is refered to as Majlis as it is the main part of the congregation. It begins with the knowledge, teachings and praises of Prophets and Imams, known as Fazail, and finally addressing to the tragedy and events of Karbala knwon as Masaib.

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Nauha

Nauha is the most common way of Azadari in Amroha. Some specific Nauhas are recited on some specific dates and places. Although you can hear voices of nauhas coming out of every home in the month of Muharram.

Juloos

Muharram processions

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The Juloos (Muharram processions) which are a major part of the city’s culture were first started by Syed Shah Miskeen. The procession is divided into three parts. It starts with a que of camels which portrays the captives of Karbala which consisted of children and women who came along with Imam Hussain. In the middle there is Aaraish which is the portrayal of some coffins of martyrs and some assets recovered from Karbala after the shahadat of Imam Hussain. Following it is the main part of the Juloos which includes Hussaini baja on the very front stating the victory as in Arab the victory in any battle was expressed by drums and cymbals. Behind it are people with Alams. The Alams in the Juloos are of two types, one is called kamanta which is the collection of arms of martyrs. Kamanta consist of a spear, a bow on the top and two arrows. Others are flags, generally green( signifying Islam) and a white flag with blood stains denoting the martyrdom of Hazrat Abbas, the commander of  Imam Hussain’s army, and his belowed brother. After Alams there is the Taboot, coffin of Imam Hussain and following it is Zuljanah, Imam Hussain’s faithful horse. Behind Zuljanah an arc of people recite Daura, an elegiac.

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Camels

There is a que of 10-15 camels at the very beginning of the Juloos portraying the captives of Karbala. Children ride these camels throughout the procession.  Anjuman-e-Razakaran-e-Hussaini takes charge of these camels and maintain them during and after the Juloos.

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Aaraish

The que of Aaraish are potryals of relics of Karbala, including Zari( coffins of martyrs), cradle of Hazrat Ali Asghar( Imam Hussain’s 6 month old son), Roshan Chowki( a structure of wood in which shehnai and naubat is played) and some other relics.

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Sadr Juloos

Hussaini baja on the front and Alams( flags and arms of martyrs) afterwards with Taboot and Zuljanah( the coffin and horse of Imam Hussain). And at last an arc or people reciting daura and crowd following them. All mourners are bare foot during the Juloos.

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Camels

There is a que of 10-15 camels at the very beginning of the Juloos portraying the captives of Karbala. Children ride these camels throughout the procession.  Anjuman-e-Razakaran-e-Hussaini takes charge of these camels and maintain them during and after the Juloos.

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Aaraish

The que of Aaraish are potryals of relics of Karbala, including Zari( coffins of martyrs), cradle of Hazrat Ali Asghar( Imam Hussain’s 6 month old son), Roshan Chowki( a structure of wood in which shehnai and naubat is played) and some other relics.

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Sadr Juloos

Hussaini baja on the front and Alams( flags and arms of martyrs) afterwards with Taboot and Zuljanah( the coffin and horse of Imam Hussain). And at last an arc or people reciting daura and crowd following them. All mourners are bare foot during the Juloos.

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Camels

After the battle of Karbala, when Imam Hussain and his followers were martyred, the camps of Imam Hussain were burnt, assets were robbed and  his family and the families of other martyrs, among which only women and children were left along with only one man Imam Zain-ul-Aabedin who could not fight the battle becuase of his serious illness was captured in chains by the army of Yazid. The troop headed toward Shaam( present day Damascus ) and captives were on camels tied with ropes from hands and neck. The journey was a not less than a horrible dream and witnessed many deaths of childen as mothers could not hold their childen safe and childern often fell from camels and die. This que of camels portrays the those captives.

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Roshan Chowki

Roshan Chowki is one of the many elements of Aaraish. One Roshan Chowki is placed on the first, another in the middle and One at the last position in the que of Aaraish. Sometimes the middle one is not present. Roshan Chowki is a wooden structure in which Naubat is played. It is an Indo-Iranian culture in which the arrival of a king was announced by playing Naubat and Shehnai. Naubat often plays some elegy poems written on Imam Hussain and his followers such as “Sher Shaheed Ho gaya” and ” Subha Hoti hai Jago Sakina’ are played on Naubat. This is why Roshan Chowki is set before the main Juloos, so wherever it passes through it announces the arrival of Juloos of Imam Hussain. Sometimes food packets are also distributed from roshan Chowki to all the people who are in need. Children often ride inside the Roshan Chowkis. There are several Roshan Chowkis built and placed in different Imambaras.

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Zari

There are 20-25 Zari-e-mubarak or Zari in a Juloos.. Zaris are the coffins of of martyrs of Karbala. They are beautifully designed and some Quranic verses are also written on them. Just like Roshan Chowkis every Imambara also has its own Zaris which is demonstrated on the day when Juloos begins from that Imamabara or Azakhana. There is a Karbalai takht which is also demonstrated along with Zaris on 4th Muharram from Azakhana Hurmat Shah. People are hired to lift and walk with the Zaris. All the arrangements of labour required and there expenses are beared by Anjuman-e-Razakaran-e-Hussaini.

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Jhoola

Jhoola is the cradle of Hazrat Ali Asghar, the youngest son of Imam Hussain. Hazrat Ali Asghar is the youngest martyr of Karbala, and was only 6 months old. After the camps of Imam Hussain were burnt, the army of Yazid robbed the families of martyrs. The cradle was one of those holy assets. Imam Hussain wanted to get some water for Hazrat Ali Asghar as Imam hussain and his followers were deprived of water since three day, when the Yazid’s army shot the infant with an arrow and he died in the hands of Imam Hussain. The cradle was Hazrat Ali Asghar’s last memento left with his mother. This cradle portrays the sacrifice of the youngest martyr of karbala. There are different representations of Jhoola in the Aaraish of each day. These is a cradle made of silver which is demonstrated on 7th of Muharram.

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Hussaini baja

Hussaini baja consist of Dhol( drums ), Jhaan( cymbals ) and tasha( kettle drum ). Hussaini baja plays three types of rhythms namely Kalma, Teen taal and Matam. Kalma is a rhythmic sound of the actual Kalma, “La ilaha illalah Muhammadur rasoolullah”. Teen taal is a six beat rhythm in three sets of two beat each. Matam is a three beat rhythm which symbolyses the sound of sayinh “Hussain-Hussain-Hussain”. These rhythms were founded by Syed Asghar Hussain sb. Kalma and Teen taal are played during the routes of the procession and Matam is played while arriving or leaving and Imambara. All the Dhol and Jhaan follow the beats of tasha. Till 1935 it was played by profeesional, but in 1935 people of amroha started playing baja themselves.

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Alam

Alam is a term generally used for a flag and in Muharram these flags are special and different meanings. You can see Alam everywhere. Black Alam, placed on the to of every Imambara is used for symbolizing the begining of Muharram, In Juloos there are two types of Alam, Kamanta and Pharaira. Kamanta is made to portray the arms of martyrs. It consists of a spear on the top of which a bow is placed with two arrows and two swords hanging from each side. Kamanta is generally covered in flowers. Pharaira is made of cloth just like a real flag. there are two Pharairas in the Juloos. White with blood stains portrays the martyrdom. And a green Alam with a Mashq( a water bag made of leather used in ancient times to store water ) on hanging on the top portrays the Alam of Hazrat Abbas, the commander of army and faithful brother of Imam Hussain, who was killed in the struggle to bring some water for the children.

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Taboot

Taboot is the portrayal coffin of Imam Hussain, covered with white cloth with blood stains showing martyrdom. Mourners lift the Taboot on their shoulders and it continously travels roughly 18kms of route on the shoulders starting from the Imambara according the specific date and ending in the same Imambara. In between people lifting Taboot are often replaced by others to take some rest. There are two Pharaira and one Kamanta which is called Salami Alam,  just behind the Taboot. Salami Alam goes inside Imambaras of different places to give a salute, just like the arms are saluting the martyr.

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Zuljanah

Zuljanah was the name of Imam Hussains loyal horse who never left him alone even in Imam Hussain’s last moments. Zuljanah was a very special horse. Prophet Muhammad had chosen the horse for his grandson. This horse was the childhood companion of Imam Hussain. Zuljanah and taboot always stays together during the procession, and often goes inside houses so that women can also give a tribute to Imam Hussain, and do Matam and commemorate. Women and children also feed the horse with different desersts. This horse is decorated with silver and gold jwellery. Mourners in Amroha maintain and take care of the horse for the whole year. Even the horse purchased to portray Zuljanah is verified to be from the same breed as Zuljanah.

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Daura

Mourners make an arc just behind the Zuljanah and recite an elegiac which is a poetic description of Imam Hussain and Karbala. The founders of Azadari made an attempt to communicate to the people while in the processions and came up with the idea of explaining things poetically so that the listeners could remember and understand the Juloos. Basically the arc of people recites the rhymes which ends with the name of “Hussain” and all the crowd behind them says “Hussain-Hussain-Hussain”. There is a specific formation of crowd which is called as Saff meaning rows. The Juloos is a very disciplined procession and people are arranged in rows says Hussain-Hussain-Hussain and remembering Imam Hussain.

For more photos and videos on Azadari in Amroha, visit our website www.amrohaazadari.com.